One plus one equals two. There are 60 seconds in a minute. Sixty minutes is equal to one hour. There are 24 hours in a day. There are 365 days in a year, these are all are basic facts that we know by heart, but they highlight the importance of one thing: Number.
Can you imagine a world without numbers? it is safe to say that society, as we know today, would not be developed without numbers. the Scientific and technological development upon which society is built depends on mathematics, which in turn depends on numbers.
Despite their importance, the evolution of numbers remains mostly a mystery. this is because the first ancient prehistoric people, who probably developed simple methods of counting, leave no records to explain themselves.
Common sense and ancient evidence point to the idea that numbering and counting began at number one. Although they probably did not call it “one”, Prehistoric people were counted and tracked the lines of carving on the bone.
It is estimated that up to 20,000 years ago it was known as ishango bone. found in Africa in 1960, Ishango Bone (a formula of a baboon) features a series of lines that look like what we today call “tally marks”.
Tracking small numbers of items with tally marks was sufficient for individuals and small groups. As societies grew and grew, trade became more complex, requiring the development of numbers to make simple mathematical calculations.
historians believe that the number and count are around 4000 B.C. in Sumeria, which was now located in southern Mesopotamia in southern Iraq. one of the first civilizations to facilitate cities that were centers of trade, the people of Sumeria needed new ways of counting and record keeping.
While a new numbering and counting system was being developed in Sumeria, so were the basics of algorithmic and writing. Maintaining goods according to business requirements and basic addition and subtraction in addition to an expanded number and counting system.
All these basic ideas developed simultaneously and cities developed. Some historians believe that some of these similar ideas developed independently in other regions of the world as well.
For example, the Arabic numeral system that we are all familiar with today is generally credited to two mathematicians of ancient India: Bramhagupta from the 6th century B.C. And from the 5th-century Aryabhata B.C.
After all, numbers were needed for more than just counting things. We can thank the ancient Egyptians for taking the leap to using numbers to use to measure things. Historians believe that the use of numbers for measurements allowed ancient Egyptians to build pyramids and lay the foundations of advanced mathematics concepts, such as geometry.